It pinpointed exactly where female genital mutilation is occurring and what cultures are practicing it. However, Congress and several state legislatures have introduced legislation to make the practice of genital mutilation illegal. The purpose of this article seemed to be to explore the cross-cultural views of the practice of female genital mutilation. The article also examines the possible defenses that may be raised to criminal prosecution. This young girl was subjected to infibulation, which is a requirement in some countries for marriage. In the United States, for a woman to be granted asylum for female genital mutilation, she must prove that she is a refugee.

However, even more shocking is the data on violent crime attacks on women throughout the world. Kelson, “The Courage to Blaspheme”: Being a woman in fear of genital mutilation is often not enough to qualify. Finally, the author speaks about the practice of female genital mutilation on American soil. The procedures are used as a means of controlling the sexuality of female populations.

annotated bibliography on fgm

There are a substantial amount of new cases of female genital mutilation that occur each year. It is part of the socialization of women in many countries. The author explores the justifications given for the procedure to better understand why women sometimes consent. Women’s Low Status and Power.

The author goes on to describe the current state of asylum law. It is a marking of fvm. Silencing the Deadly Ritual: It presents several different issues including the types of genital mutilation employed, the justifications advanced by supporters of the practice, the societal treatment of females across the world, and finally some of the legal implications associated with its practice.


annotated bibliography on fgm

However, the author points out that it is not mentioned in the Koran or any other theological text of Islam. It provided that there are no health benefits associated with this procedure, rather many harmful health risks.

The procedure is often irreversible both with the physical and mental scars it leaves. The mother, Oluloro’s, genitals were mutilated when she was four years old.

The author teamed up with a prestige documentary creator to create a documentary to show people exactly what female genital mutilation is and how it affects many women. This article examines the “nature, extent and consequences of [female genital mutilation].

The doctor classifies the types of “female circumcision into two broad categories, clitoridectomies. She then goes on to describe the way in which the procedure is performed.

Female Genital Mutilation

The Center for Reproductive Law and Policywhich focuses on promoting women’s equality worldwide by guaranteeing reproduction rights as human rights, can be located at http: News We Can Use provides women-focused news: Finally, the article calls for the legal condemnation of the practice of female genital mutilation in the United States. She argues that the procedure should be called mutilation, because that is exactly what it is.

Send questions and comments to: This work provided information on the different classifications of female bibliogarphy mutilation as well as the many health risks associated with it. He describes the practice of female circumcision as discrimination. Doctor Toubia also describes the cultural purposes of female circumcision. Women’s Rights as Human Rights. Europe, Eastern Europe, and Russia. However, the author notes that the way female genital mutilation in viewed has an effect on the treatment is given in asylum law.


There have been reports that the number of genital mutilations have been decreasing in the last couple of years. This work annotqted key facts about female genital mutilation.

Female Genital Mutilation

This young girl was subjected to infibulation, which is a requirement in some countries for marriage. Female fetuses are often aborted in Countries such as China and India. There are many causes of why female genital mutilation occurs that are social, cultural, and thought of as religious. The response of African women is also explored in this article. This is done to decrease a woman’s ability to achieve orgasm, in the hopes to keep her from having sex.

This article, is actually an essay examining the practice of female genital annotate in two context, through the actual practice of the procedure, including the reasons advanced for its necessity, and through Alice Walker’s novel, Possessing the Secret of Joy.

The procedures also provides for the fidelity of the women bibliographg these cultures so they are worth something before they are married.

It produces emotional and physical wounds that may never heal.