However, goals are the place to start. In any teaching situation, whether it be a separate critical thinking course or module, or one in which the critical thinking content is infused in or immersed in standard subject-matter content, or some mixture of these; all of the dispositions, as well as the suppositional and integration abilities 11 and 12 and auxiliary abilities 13 through 15 are applicable all the time and should permeate the instruction. In this essay, I have only attempted to outline a usable and defensible set of critical thinking goals, including criteria for making judgments. Consider and reason from premises, reasons, assumptions, positions, and other propositions with which they disagree or about which they are in doubt — without letting the disagreement or doubt interfere with their thinking “suppositional thinking” Integrate the other abilities and dispositions in making and defending a decision The first twelve abilities are constitutive abilities. For some but not all goals and types of learning, the pedagogical-constructivism view has empirical support, but it should not be confused with epistemological constructivism. How does that apply to this case describe a case, which might well appear to be a counter example?

Baron and Robert J. Induce, and judge induction To generalizations. The constitutive parts are covered in 1- 12, leaving the rhetorical part under The next three are auxiliary critical thinking abilities: Follow problem solving steps Monitor their own thinking that is, engage in metacognition Employ a reasonable critical thinking checklist Be sensitive to the feelings, level of knowledge, and degree of sophistication of others Employ appropriate rhetorical strategies in discussion and presentation orally and in writing , including employing and reacting to “fallacy” labels in an appropriate manner. The lack of it makes critical thinking less valuable, or even dangerous.

Space limitations have precluded their application to curriculum and assessment, though I have done so dispositione. In practice, one will ordinarily select portions to emphasize.


Induce, and judge induction To generalizations. It crotical only a critical thinking content outline. That is, they are definitionally part of this conception of critical thinking.

ennis taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities

How does that apply to this case describe a case, which might well appear to be a counter example? Upper Ennos River, NJ: Here are some other sources in which similar ideas are presented in varying degrees of detail and txonomy. Teaching Philosophy, 41 1 On the other hand, a criticism of critical thinking for a definitional omission of caring for the worth and dignity of every person could well be based on the unreasonable assumption that the concept, critical thinking, should represent everything that is good, an overwhelming requirement indeed.

This includes the dispositions to Why?

ennis taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities

However, goals amd the abiligies to start. This includes the dispositions to Be clear about the intended meaning of what is said, written, or otherwise communicated, seeking as much precision as the situation requires Determine, and maintain focus on, the conclusion or question Seek and offer reasons Take into account the total situation Be reflectively aware of their own basic beliefs Care about the dignity and worth of every person a correlative disposition 5.

Ennis’ taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities

A legitimate effort should have been made to uncover counter-evidence The proposed conclusion seems plausible Make and judge value judgments: A logical basis for measuring critical thinking skills, Educational Leadership, 43 2 Baron and Robert J. That is, it is intended to accompany critical thinking.

Corroboration Possibility of corroboration Good access Competent employment of technology, if technology is useful Satisfaction by observer and reporter, if a different person of the credibility criteria in Ability 4 above. This, taxomomy third major disposition, is a correlative disposition. The fallacy-labels aspect of 15 is partly rhetorical, and partly constitutive of critical thinking.

Dispositions for Critical Thinking

With respect to epistemological constructivism the view that truth is constructed: Major criteria but not necessary conditions: We can have true or false beliefs about these. Ennis thoughts on curriculum and thijking, as well as further thoughts on the nature of critical thinking, are to be found in items listed on his academic Web sitehttp: It does not specify grade level, curriculum sequence, emphasis, criticap approach, or type of subject-matter content involved standard subject-matter content, general knowledge content, symbolic content, streetwise-knowledge content, special knowledge content, etc.


This includes the dispositions to Expertise Lack of conflict of interest Agreement among sources Reputation Use of established procedures Known risk to reputation Ability to give reasons Careful habits Observe, and judge observation reports. Examples, qualifications, and more detail can be found in some items listed at the end. I hope that this outline provides a useful basis on which to build curricula and assessment procedures.

ennis taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities

The first three abilities involve elementary clarification Focus on a question to the extent possible. Robert Sweetland’s notes homeofbob.

Background facts Consequences of accepting or rejecting the judgment Prima facie application of acceptable principles Alternatives Balancing, weighing, deciding The next two abilities involve advanced clarification. What would not be an example though close to being one?

The next two abilities involve the basis for the decision. What are the facts? The constitutive parts are covered in 1- 12, leaving the rhetorical part under In expressing a concern about true belief, this conception abilites critical thinking accepts the view that our thinkin and vocabulary are constructed by us, but also that to oversimplify somewhat the relationships among the referents of our concepts and terms are not constructed by us.