Put more broadly, this article cuts to the core of how to conceptualize violence and time in modern German history. Drawing on Prussian models, the Government-General created two institutions in the cities: Beseler therefore began to implement a series of policies intended to accommodate some Polish ambitions for self-rule and lay the foundations for Polish statehood. His work is commonly seen as the basis for the later and more expansive Generalplan Ost of the SS. Martin Luther in German Historiography.

Though Bracher is opposed to the Sonderweg interpretation of German history, he does believe in a special German mentality Sonderbewusstsein that emerged in the late 18th century. Other people in Poland, however, had reason to worry. Recalled to duty at the beginning of the war, Beseler fought on both the Western and Eastern Fronts before being named Governor-General of Poland in August Marketing, Konsum und Produktbilder des Automobils nach dem Boom. Ominously, the strip was to be created by ethnic cleansing, although most of the German political establishment clearly rejected violence as a means of accomplishing the transfer of populations.

These different varieties of German rule could not have affected more differently the native populations of eastern Europe. Historian Hans-Ulrich Wehler of the Bielefeld School places the sobderweg of Germany’s path to disaster in the s and s, when economic modernization took place, but political modernization did not happen and the old Prussian rural elite remained in firm control of the army, diplomacy and the civil geman.

The border strip was not an attempt to create a Greater German empire, but tesis rather an attempt to avoid the creation of a Serbia-like Poland. The Polonization of the schools actually ended up causing serious tensions between occupiers and occupied, though not because the occupation regime was worried about the language or curriculum of the schools.

german sonderweg thesis

Related articles in Web of Science Google Scholar. Along with zonderweg old elites, many traditional and preindustrial norms, ways of thinking and modes of life also survived.

This literature is partly inspired by the writings of Hannah Arendt and Raphael Lemkin. He feared that expanding beyond formerly Prussian Poland would present an insurmountable task in the expulsion of Poles. Nazi Germany and the Genocide of the Jews.


Tag: Sonderweg

In any case I have decided in the matter of the schools. Bijna twintig jaar geleden ontstond er in de academische wereld en daarbuiten enorme ophef over een boek geschreven door de Amerikaanse wetenschapper Daniel Jonah Goldhagen.

Even as he prepared for the move, Frank and his supporters continued to insist that the city would sonderweb part of the General Government. In uncovering key continuities and discontinuities between the two occupation regimes in Poland, it complicates arguments about the singularity and causality of a particular German mission in eastern Europe.

Thus it can be said that interpreting and revisiting the Eastern sources of the civilizational trouble was a process performed by the help of the West, then and now.

Sonderweg thesis Research Papers –

Historians have regularly enlisted Luther in an expansive, sweeping vision of the German Reformation and the emergence of the modern German nation-state with Otto von Bismarck. There was also the sense that the Reich had taken on too much. Jews were not to be protected.

Kocka in particular has argued that while the Sonderweg thesis may not explain the reasons for the terman of the Nazi movement, it still explains the failure of the democratic Weimar Republic.

Sonderweg thesis

Third, Nazi policies towards east Europeans evolved and adapted more according to wartime conditions and needs than to deeply ingrained and stable cultural perceptions. Is it a case of the wise-after-the-fallacy to read so much into those early rebels ofwhom many historians still consider great liberals?

german sonderweg thesis

Michael Alberti notes that the change in the administrative seat of the Regierungsbezirk was effective on 1 April Eric Lohr, Nationalizing the Russian Empire: Kries suggested instituting a fifteen-year residency requirement for voters. Entry for 7 Nov.

Sonderweg – Ammon Shepherd

He believed that the intricacies of the curial system and the proportional elections would limit Jewish influence without blatantly excluding them. They contained an elaborate series of regulations governing the place of minority schools in the new school system, but they applied only to the German minority.


The unification of Germany by germaj of “blood and iron” under Prussian hegemony expanded the political influence and social weight of the officer corps with its status-oriented claims to exclusivity and autonomy.

german sonderweg thesis

At a wider level, this paper tried to offer a general view of the Central and Eastern European response to what would become one of the major historiographical debates of the twentieth century, the thesis of the atypical path of development, known also as the theory of the Sonderweg.

Yet Hans Frank, who was determined to prevent further loss of his territory, vigorously opposed any plans to extend the Warthegau. This gave a militaristic approach to German government that lasted through the Weimar Republic and into National Socialism.

Thess Peculiarities of German History: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary. The liberal assimilationism once favoured by Polish and Jewish elites had faded from Polish political life by the time the Germans arrived; among Jewish elites, nationalist and Zionist political movements were gaining new favour, while Polish anti-Semitism was steadily rising.

Europe between Hitler and Stalin New York, Disputed Histories Ithaca,especially pp. Sincehistorians such as Fischer, Wehler, and Hans Mommsen have drawn a harsh indictment of the German elite of the period —, who were accused of promoting authoritarian values during the Second Reich, being solely responsible for launching World War Isabotaging the democratic Weimar Republic, and aiding and abetting the Nazi dictatorship in internal repression, war, and genocide.

Entry for 13 Nov.