Ludwik Landau, a renowned Polish economist, wrote in his chronicle of wartime Poland that the annexation of the city happened more quickly than even the German occupation authorities had expected. Bijna twintig jaar geleden ontstond er in de academische wereld en daarbuiten enorme ophef over een boek geschreven door de Amerikaanse wetenschapper Daniel Jonah Goldhagen. During the Raleigh Lecture on History in , Namier stated that the German liberals in the Revolution of were “in reality forerunners of Hitler”, whose views about the Poles and Czechs presaged the great international crises of —39, and called the revolution “a touchstone of German mentality and a decisive element in East-European politics” [6] In his lecture, Namier described the revolution as “the early manifestations of aggressive nationalism, especially of German nationalism which derives from the much belauded Frankfort Parliament rather than from Bismarck and ” Prussianism “. Retrieved from ” https: But the Germans were dealing with the Provisional Council of State, a Polish political organization that the Germans had themselves created in Deze heftige discussie vond niet alleen plaats in academische tijdschriften, maar werd ook gevoerd in dagbladen, populaire tijdschriften en op de televisie. This is an article for the forthcoming Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther and available online through the Oxford Research Encyclopedia in Religion see link:

Declaration by Frank and Greiser to Hitler, 3 Nov. Deze heftige discussie vond niet alleen plaats in academische tijdschriften, maar werd ook gevoerd in dagbladen, populaire tijdschriften en op de televisie. Both phenomena could, horribile dictu , even relativize the concept of the German Sonderweg between and [20]. Fred Taylor London, , pp. Poliakov wrote that even if not all Germans supported the Holocaust, it was “tacitly accepted by the popular will” [16]. For Goebbels, at least, it is apparent that ethnic considerations actually were an argument against incorporating the city. The Crisis of German Ideology:

No longer the epitome of illiberalism, antimodernism and irrationality, Germany is now seen as the catastrophic apotheosis of modernity, reflecting the same dark problems of modernity found in countries across the world but to an extreme and seemingly unique degree.

Sonderweg thesis Research Papers –

This line of reasoning suggests that as National Socialism fades farther into the past, it becomes less of a clear case that the collapse of the Weimar Republic led to National Socialism. Men over the age of twenty-five would be allowed to vote in the elections.


The liberal Max Weber criticized the “feudalization” of the upper bourgeoisie, which seemed to accept both the disproportional representation of the nobility in politics as well as aristocratic norms and practices instead of striving for power on its own terms or cultivating a distinctly middle-class culture.

Both phenomena could, horribile dictueven relativize the concept of the German Sonderweg between and [20]. It would be useful to detect the continuity of these concepts throughout Polish and Romanian twentieth century since the former succeeded sondderweg codify the modern tesis of their countries sonderewg such an extent that the latter became national brands.

Put more broadly, this article cuts to the core of how to conceptualize violence and time in modern German history. The defeat also led Germany into a new phase of government different, full parliamentary constitution with no monarchy or empire. The situation in Lodz is still topsy-turvy. It remains to be seen, tbesis future scholarship will initiate a soneerweg of historicization of the Hitler period, for example by comparing it with Stalinist Russia and with examples such as the Stone Age Communism of Cambodia.

german sonderweg thesis

After Germany’s defeat in World War II inthe term Sonderweg lost its positive connotations from the 19th century and acquired its present negative meaning. These local German activists could easily be ignored when needed, and it appears that their presence played only a secondary role. Traditional, aristocratic, premodern society battled an emerging capitalist, bourgeois, modernizing society. Historians opposed or critical of the Sonderweg have based their critiques partly on methodology.

From here it follows that the measurement of Romanian anomaly acquired significant degrees. Blackbourn, David, and Geoff Eley. Lebensraum and the Holocaust New York,pp.

It was a tyranny imposed upon the German people by themselves”. The road from democracy to dictatorship was not a particular German case, but the radical nature of the National Socialist dictatorship hhesis to the power of the German ideology that in — became a political and totalitarian reality [18].


german sonderweg thesis

When in power, he was more than willing to sacrifice the needs of ethnic Germans abroad when it was opportune. Many of these accounts tried to explain National Socialism as a product of German historical singularity, — its singularity as a political entity and, connected to this, its singularity in its intellectual formation as a Kulturnation.

In the view of Wehler, Fischer, and their supporters, only the German defeat in put an end to the “premodern” social structure which had led to and then sustained traditional German authoritarianism and its more radical variant, National Socialism. He believed the rush was an attempt by the German leadership to put facts on the ground during the ongoing border negotiations with the Soviets.

This article uses the conventional translation of Generalgouvernement for Poland during the Second World War. They give no direct evidence.

Until the mids, the Sonderweg debate was polarized with most non-German participants at one pole and German participants at the other.

Sonderweg thesis

Germany did not, according to the now prevailing opinion, differ from the great European nations to an extent that would justify speaking of a ‘unique German path’. The various authorities seem to be exercising power against each other, rather than in cooperation. Die Subventionierung thess deutschen Minderheit in Polen Stuttgart,p.

Marketing, Konsum und Produktbilder des Automobils nach dem Boom. Polish Jews saw this exemption as a great betrayal by the German occupiers.

Het boek getiteld Hitler’s willing executioners was gebaseerd op See Langbehn and Salama, German Colonialismxxii—xxiii. Related articles in Web of Science Google Scholar.

Wonderweg University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. For example the Kaiserreich is also a prehistory of the Federal Republic of Germany.