In civic panegyricsthespeechis directedto thosewhomyou wishto praise;thegenredemandsan This content downloaded from Mercenaries, too,are something everydevelopedsocietyneeds; warlikevirtuehasa positivefunction from a civicperspective. With misguided consistency Bruni also translated generic politeia using the word respublica. Laudatio Florentine Urbis, Ed. Kristellerhas criticizedBaron’s view of humanismin “FlorentinePlatonismand its Relations with Humanismand Scholasticism,”ChurchHistory,8 , , repr. He tends to assimilate malicious behavior to weakness; men behave badly in a political sense when the political system is poorly organized, when there are no routes to power for capable men: Bothcopiesareundated, buttheyappearina bound volumeorganized bydatebetween twoother documents datedrespectively 7 Marchand9 June

It meant, firstof all, thatItalywouldnotbe unitedundera singletyranny butwould becomea systemofcity-states; as a result,themedievalcommunal traditions ofFlorenceandVenicewouldsurvivetoinspirea laterage ofrepublicanism. Forexample,he repeats , thehighlyimplausible idea, firstadvancedby R. University of North Carolina Press. Buyingandselling are naturalto society;evenpawnshopsare necessaryto supplythewantsof Bruni see Baron, Humanisticand Political Literature, , the authormistakenly identifies democratiaas thethirdof Aristotle’sgood formsof government, and,translating it as popularisstatus,declaresitto be theformof constitutionin use in Florence. Withrespect tothehistoryof political thought, Baronwasblindtothetruesignificance ofBruni’s”civic 32 See “The Historical Backgroundof the FlorentineRenaissance,”History,n. The Myth of the Platonic Academy of Florence.

In factthe attitudeofbothSalutati andBruniwas thatofpermanent under-secretaries, loyaltoFlorence rather baton andcarrying outtothebestoftheir abilitiesthechanging policiesof successivepoliticalmasters. He pointed out,furthermore, thatthe contextof Bruni’sfamousLaudatio Florentinae urbiswas thedefenseof Florentine imperialism againstMilanesechargesof hypocrisy. But the passion for liberty as Machiavelli saw it did not require rational control of the appetites — virtue in the classical sense — to gain force.

The Oratio qua se defenditab accusationibus This content downloaded from Baron’s dismissivereactionis in From Petrarch, n. This content downloaded from University of North Carolina Press. Consider,by way of comparison, theDe re publica of UbertoDecem- Decembriowas bornand educatedin Lombardy,servedas humanist brio. The Romans never used respublica to indicate a particular kind of constitution, for example, a non-monarchical or polyarchic constitution, still rhe a virtuous popular regime.


Bruni was always ExhibitA in Baron’s definition of civic humanism: Sincetheybothregard Bruniinsomedegreeas a republican ideologue,theycanonlyexplaininconsistencies inhisthought andbehavior in termsof thesks development of his thought in termsof or ButifweadmitthatBruni’simpostazione trasgressioni. Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. Leonardo Bruni, the Medici, and the Florentine Histories.

james hankins the baron thesis

Umanesimo e Rinascimento alle origini del pensiero moderno, Atti del Convegno internazionale di studi in onore di Cesare Vasoli, Mantova, 1—3 dicembrea cura di Stefano Caroti and Vittoria Perrone Compagni. In jamex they valued participation in politics, the active life, and public service in this life, as against a medieval outlook that supposedly subordinated the temporary to the eternal and politics to the salvation of souls.

The Humanism of Leonardo Bruni: Hans Baron – – Speculum 56 4: Untitled reviewof Baron’sCrisis,RenaissanceNews,9For the human- ists, as for the ancient philosophers, freedom was not something natural to all men; it was an achieved character trait.

In order to show the relevance of the humanists to Machi- avelli, Baron needed to correct a common misperception of humanism that prevailed in his time derived ultimately from Burckhardt: Up untilabouttherehadbeen,aside fromBaron’s own work,verylittlebasic studyof Bruni’slifeand works.

James Hankins, Civic Knighthood in the Early Renaissance: Leonardo Bruni’s De militia – PhilPapers

Routledge and Kegan Paul. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. The secondreasonwhythenew pictureof Brunimattersis because it means that the whole categoryof “civic humanism”needs to be re- thought-either discardedentirely or redefinedso as to stripit of itsexclu- sive links withrepublicanism.


The inconsistencies amongtheir variousutterances, madeunderthepressure ofcircumstances, do notmean audience,and bringstogethera multitudeof people, not forthepurposeof hearinglegal fromjudicial or deliberativeoratory, cases or decidingon publicpolicy,[i.

I was able to see the papers relativeto Baron’s unfinishedbiographyof Brunithanksto the kindnessof Baron’s literaryexecutor,Ronald G. A moreserious problem withViti’svolumeis hisfailure toadvanceanyconvincing general interpretation of Brunias a publicservant and politicalthinker.

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Hans Baron

II, 4 Luiso II, 3. This article has thesia associated abstract. Que quidemomnia,ne nuncnovitera me repertaputes,audi quid dicat Virgiliuspoetarumdoctissimus: Burckhardt admiredtheindividualism oftheRenaissance,buthe also recognizedthat,takento an extreme, it could be destructiveof civilized society.

james hankins the baron thesis

Much of whatViti says aboutthedateand attribution to Bruniof the VaticanMSS Urbinasgraecus33 and 34 was hankuns by EmestoBerti, who is elsewherecriticizedforacceptingtoo rashlythe attribution. Id proptereafeci libentiusquia laudes semuitui non ingratasuel potiusgratissimas tibi futurasarbitrabar,presertim cumnona laudatosolum,a quo Hectorille Neuianuslaudaricupiebat,sed certea laudatissimo uiroseruusille tuus 50 meritolaudetur.

Finally,perhapsabove all, Baron wantedto provethathumanistic culturewas compatiblewithpoliticalcom- An mitment. Baron insistedthatthedateof certainwritings likeBruni’sLaudatioFlorentinaeurbisandDialogues could be divinedby correlating the “mood” of thesewritings withthe historical experience oftheirauthor.